Focusing Mainly on Legal Empowerment:
A. Institutions and Services Focusing Mainly on Legal Empowerment
Academic Network on Legal Empowerment of the Poor (ANLEP), University of Oslo, Norway “The main purpose of ANLEP is to undertake research and disseminate research findings on selected topics that have been crucial to the work of the Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor, including a focus on access to justice and rule of law, labour and property rights, socio-economic and political empowerment of women and human rights-based pro-poor governance.”
Barefoot Lawyers International. “Barefoot Lawyers International is a global social enterprise dedicated to innovative solutions for the legal empowerment of all, especially the poor and vulnerable.” http://www.barefootlawyers.org/
Governance and Justice Group (GJG). “The Governance and Justice Group (GJG) is a non-profit organization. We are a multi-disciplinary group of highly experienced practitioners and offer support to institutions and others involved in reforming justice, security and governance. Our work is grounded in reality and long experience. We offer contemporary, relevant and pertinent recommendations for reform and change. Our approach is down-to-earth, pragmatic and solution-oriented. Our main focus is on ensuring that ordinary people have a voice and are able to access judicial and other institutions to exercise their rights.” http://www.governancejustice.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=44&Itemid=59
Haki Legal Empowerment Network. “The Hakí Network is a global network dedicated to using the law to empower the poor and marginalized. We were founded by a core group of lawyers, civil society organizations and activists to harness law and human rights as a fundamental tool for advancing international development. We emphasize local solutions, interconnectivity, and reducing poverty by strengthening rights and good governance and reducing gender inequality.”
Institute of Development Studies, Eldis website, Legal empowerment & access to justice (list of relevant papers). “Our aim is to share the best in development policy, practice and research.” http://www.eldis.org/index.cfm?objectid=EFCFD710-BF13-CB7B-7581A262D4602E37&id=1&pageNo=2
International Applied Research Learning Network on Poverty and Human Rights. “The Applied Research Learning Network on Poverty and Human Rights (LEPnet.org) is a project of The University of Winnipeg Global College. The network stems from the work of the UN Commission on the Legal Empowerment of the Poor which issued its final report in June, 2008 entitled ‘Making the Law Work for Everyone.’ The network has been developed to serve as a portal through which a diversity of organizations’ contributions to the field of poverty and human rights are channeled, as well as to be a collaborative space where researchers and practitioners can collaborate on the development and publishing of new research and learning materials.” http://www.lepnet.org/
International Bridges to Justice. “In recognition of the fundamental principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Bridges to Justice (IBJ) is dedicated to protecting the basic legal rights of ordinary citizens in developing countries. Specifically, IBJ works to guarantee all citizens the right to competent legal representation, the right to be protected from cruel and unusual punishment, and the right to a fair trial.” http://www.ibj.org/
International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). “As an independent international research organisation, we are specialists in linking local to global. In Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Central and South America, the Middle East and the Pacific, we work with some of the world's most vulnerable people to ensure they have a say in the policy arenas that most closely affect them — from village councils to international conventions. Through close collaboration with partners at the grassroots, we make our research and advocacy relevant to their needs and alive to their realities.”
International Justice Mission. “International Justice Mission is a human rights agency that brings rescue to victims of slavery, sexual exploitation and other forms of violent oppression. IJM lawyers, investigators and aftercare professionals work with local officials to secure immediate victim rescue and aftercare, to prosecute perpetrators and to ensure that public justice systems - police, courts and laws - effectively protect the poor.” http://www.ijm.org/
International Legal Foundation (ILF). “Non-governmental organization that assists countries emerging from conflict or transition to establish public defender systems that provide effective, quality criminal defense services to the poor.”
Microjustice for All International Network. “Microjustice is an umbrella term for a variety of initiatives that provide basic legal services to the poorest people around the world. In many societies, the poorest lack access to lawyers, courts or government services. Hence, they cannot enjoy even the most basic rights they have according to the law. Basic legal services may range from obtaining correct identity papers, legal proof of land ownership to basic legal assistance with legal proceedings, for example in the field of employment and labour conditions, housing or family matters…A number of initiatives are working in the field of microjustice and develop and practise low cost processes and solutions. The aim of this portal is to provide a comprehensive overview of current initiatives.”
Namati: Innovations in Legal Empowerment. “Namati is an international non-profit organization that promotes innovative application and research of legal empowerment techniques. As a means of cultivating a more robust movement for legal empowerment, Namati also hosts a growing global network of legal empowerment practitioners and supporters.”
Open Society Justice Initiative. “The Open Society Justice Initiative uses law to protect and empower people around the world. Through litigation, advocacy, research, and technical assistance, the Justice Initiative promotes human rights and builds legal capacity for open societies. We foster accountability for international crimes, combat racial discrimination and statelessness, support criminal justice reform, address abuses related to national security and counterterrorism, expand freedom of information and expression, and stem corruption linked to the exploitation of natural resources.”
PILnet: The Global Network for Public Interest Law. “PILnet connects with local partners to develop the institutions essential to rights-respecting societies. It inspires lawyers to serve the public interest, strengthens the ability of civil society to help shape law and policy and makes formal systems of justice more accessible.” http://www.pilnet.org/
Timap for Justice. “Our program is directed by two lawyers who train, supervise, and support the paralegals in their work. The directors employ litigation and high-level advocacy sparingly and strategically to address cases in which a) a paralegal is not able to achieve resolution on her own, b) the harm or injustice is severe, and/or c) there is a possibility of legal impact… We adopt a synthetic orientation towards Sierra Leone’s dualist legal structure, engaging and seeking to improve both formal and customary institutions.”
United Nations Development Programme, Initiative for Legal Empowerment of the Poor. “UNDP’s Initiative for Legal Empowerment of the Poor (ILEP) which takes into account the key recommendations of the Commission [on Legal Empowerment of the Poor], supports a range of national, regional and global efforts to expand poor people’s access to the legal and institutional mechanisms that can help them break the vicious cycle of exclusion and poverty.”
World Bank, Justice for the Poor program. “The World Bank’s Justice for the Poor (J4P) program…reflects an understanding of the need for demand-oriented, community-driven approach to justice and governance reform, which values the perspectives of the users, particularly the poor and marginalized such as women, youth and ethnic minorities.”
B. Publications Focusing Mainly on Legal Empowerment
Dan Banik, “Legal Empowerment as a Conceptual and Operational Tool in Fighting Poverty Eradication,” Hague Journal on the Rule of Law, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 116-131 (2009).
Dan Banik, Rights and Legal Empowerment in Eradicating Poverty (Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2008).
Dan Banik, The Legal Empowerment Agenda – Poverty, Labour and the Informal Economy (Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2011).
Dan Banik, “The Potential of ‘Legal Empowerment’ in Eradicating Poverty,” Rights and Development Bulletin, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 5-7 (2009).
J.M. Barendrecht & M. de Langen, “Legal empowerment of the poor: Innovating access to justice,” in Jorrit De Jong and Gowher Rizvi (Eds.), The state of access: Success and failure of democracies to create equal opportunities, pp. 250-271 (Brookings institution press, Innovative governance in the 21st century, Washington D.C. 2008).
Maurits Barendrecht and Patricia Van Nispen, “Microjustice” Tilburg Law and Economics Center (TILEC), discussion paper No. 2008-010 (2008).
M. E. Brøther and J.A. Solberg (eds.) “Legal Empowerment – A Way out of Poverty” The Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Issue 4, (December 2007).
John W. Bruce et. al., Legal Empowerment of the Poor: From Concepts to Assessment (USAID, March 2007). http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADM500.pdf
Lorenzo Cotula, Legal Empowerment for Local Resource Control: Securing Local Resource Rights within Foreign Investment Projects in Africa (Russell Press, 2007).
Gilbert Marcus and Steven Budlender, A Strategic Evaluation of Public Interest Litigation in South Africa (Atlantic Philanthropies, June 2008).
Martin Gramatikov and Robert B. Porter, “Yes, I Can: Subjective Legal Empowerment,”
TISCO Working Paper Series on Civil Law and Conflict Resolution Systems, No. 008/2010 (October 2010). http://ssrn.com/abstract=1685839
Margot Kokke and Pedro Vuskovic, “Legal Empowerment of the Poor in Nicaragua,” Working Paper Series (September, 2010). http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1674020
Vivek Maru, “Access to Justice and Legal Empowerment: A Review of World Bank Practice,” World Bank Justice and Development Working Paper No.9/2009 (2009).http://ssrn.com/abstract=1710121
Vivek Maru, “Allies unknown: Social accountability and legal empowerment,” Health and Human Rights: An International Journal (2010).
Vivek Maru, “Between Law and Society: Paralegals and the Provision of Justice Services in Sierra Leone and Worldwide,” Yale Journal of International Law, vol. 31 (2006). http://www.yale.edu/yjil/PDFs/vol_31/Maru.pdf
Edwin Rekosh, “Who Defines the Public Interest: Public Interest Law Strategies in Central and Eastern Europe,” in Human Rights and Empowerment, Mizanur Rahman, ed. (Dhaka, Bangladesh: Empowerment Through Law of the Common People 2001.)
Report of the Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor, “Making the Law Work for Everyone,” Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor, vol. 1 and 2, (2008) online: http://www.undp.org/legalempowerment/report/Making_the_Law_Work_for_Everyone.pdf and http://www.undp.org/legalempowerment/docs/ReportVolumeII/making_the_law_work_II.pdf.
Caroline Sage and Michael Woolcock, “Breaking Legal Inequality Traps: New Approaches to Building Justice Systems for the Poor in Developing Countries,” Conference Paper for Arusha Conference, New Frontiers of Social Policy (December 12-15, 2005).
Janine Ubink and Benjamin van Rooij, “Towards Customary Legal Empowerment,”
Leiden University, Van Vollenhoven Institute and University of Amsterdam, Faculty of Law, Working Paper Series (March 2010).
C. Institutions and Services Focusing Partly on Legal Empowerment or on Related Themes
Asian Centre for Human Rights (ACHR). “Asian Centre for Human Rights is dedicated to promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the Asian region…”
Asia Foundation. “The Asia Foundation is a nonprofit, nongovernmental organization committed to the development of a peaceful, prosperous, just, and open Asia-Pacific region. The Foundation supports Asian initiatives to improve governance and law, economic development, women's empowerment, the environment, and regional cooperation.”
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Democracy and Rule of Law Program. “Rigorously examining the global state of democracy and U.S., European, and multilateral efforts to support democracy's advance.” http://www.carnegieendowment.org/programs/global/index.cfm?fa=proj&id=101
Center for International Legal Cooperation (CILC). “CILC…is a Dutch-based non-profit organization that designs and implements rule of law programmes and projects.”
Chronic Poverty Research Centre (CPRC). “The Chronic Poverty Research Centre (CPRC) is an international partnership of universities, research institutes and NGOs in the UK and in developing countries. Set up in 2000 as a response to the MDG 2015 target of 'reducing poverty by half', the CPRC raised the profile of 'the other half' – those who would still be poor by 2015 despite current anti-poverty policies. During its existence, the CPRC has successfully provided evidence on what policymakers and civil society leaders could do to assist more people to escape poverty sustainably, through its three streams of work – research, policy analysis and policy engagement.”
Danish Institute for Human Rights. “The Danish Institute for Human Rights takes point of departure in the internationally recognized human rights, particularly the human rights mentioned in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the UN conventions and the European Council’s conventions as well as the freedom rights mentioned in the Danish Constitutional Act. The Institute works with human rights in a number of focus areas. The work is concentrated in the realms of research, education, information and projects on a national as well as an international level. “
Ford Foundation. “The Ford Foundation supports visionary leaders and organizations on the frontlines of social change worldwide. Our goals for more than half a century have been to: Strengthen democratic values; Reduce poverty and injustice; Promote international cooperation; Advance human achievement.” http://www.fordfound.org/
Global Witness. “For 17 years, Global Witness has run pioneering campaigns against natural resource-related conflict and corruption and associated environmental and human rights abuses…Our work has revealed how, rather than benefiting a country’s citizens, abundant timber, diamonds, minerals, oil and other natural resources can incentivise corruption, destabilise governments, and lead to war. Through our investigations, advocacy and campaigning, we seek solutions to the ‘resource curse’ so that citizens of resource-rich countries can get a fair share of their country’s wealth.”
Governance and Social Development Resource Centre (GSDRC). “The Governance and Social Development Resource Centre (GSDRC) provides cutting-edge knowledge services on demand and online. It aims to help reduce poverty by informing policy and practice in relation to governance, conflict and social development. The GSDRC is funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID).”
Hague Institute for the Internationalisation of Law (HIIL). “HiiL focuses on the interaction between legal systems. We create actionable knowledge through debates, workshops, conferences, knowledge partnerships, action programmes and expert networks.”
Innovating Justice. “Innovating Justice is a platform for Rule of law Solutions …We connect viable projects with expert knowledge, networks and funding…Launched in July 2009, Innovating Justice is a collaborative effort from four legal organizations: the Hague Institute for the Internationalisation of Law (HiiL), the Microjustice Initiative (MJI), the European Academy for Law and Legislation (EALL) and the Center for International Legal Cooperation (CILC).”
Institute of Development Studies (IDS). “The Institute of Development Studies (IDS) is a leading global charity for international development research, teaching and communications...Its purpose is to understand and explain the world, and to try to change it – to influence as well as to inform.”
International Development Law Organization (IDLO). “IDLO provides developing countries, countries in economic transition and those emerging from armed conflict with the resources, tools and professional skills to establish or strengthen the rule of law and good governance practices. IDLO works with judicial and legal professionals, institutions, governmental and non-governmental organizations toward achieving five main strategic objectives that contribute directly to development.”
International Network to Promote the Rule of Law (INPROL). “The aim of the International Network to Promote the Rule of Law (INPROL) is to assist international rule of law specialists in their efforts to prevent conflict and stabilize war-torn societies. An internet-based knowledge network, INPROL provides those serving in the field the ability to exchange information with other experienced practitioners and experts, and to access relevant documents, best practices, and related materials thus turning ‘lessons learned’ into ‘lessons applied.’”
Stanford Law School, Rule of Law Program. “The research activities of the Rule of Law Program aim to focus scholarly attention on issues relating to the structures and strategies of public, private and nonprofit international organizations, particularly with respect to their operations in societies in political and economic transition.”
Tilburg Institute for Interdisciplinary Studies of Civil Law and Conflict Resolution Systems (TISCO). “TISCO's focus is on justice needs in civil law. Key to our research are the individuals and corporations who use, are involved with, or are influenced by the law and the civil justice system. Taking a bottom-up approach, TISCO members develop, integrate, and apply insights from negotiation theory, conflict research, dispute system design, (comparative) legal research, network theory, behavioural law, and law and economics in their research in order to connect and extend the body of knowledge on building, maintaining and (constructively) ending horizontal relationships in which people and businesses are involved.” http://www.tilburguniversity.edu/research/institutes-and-research-groups/tisco/
Transparency International. “Transparency International, the global civil society organisation leading the fight against corruption, brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the world.
TI’s mission is to create change towards a world free of corruption.”
D. Publications Focusing Partly on Legal Empowerment or on Related Themes
Dan Banik, “Support for Human Rights-Based Development: Reflections on the Malawian Experience,” The International Journal of Human Rights, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 32-48 (2010).
Rachel Kleinfeld Belton, Competing Definitions of the Rule of Law: Implications for Practitioners, Carnegie Working Paper No. 55, Rule of Law Series, Democracy and Rule of Law Project, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (January 2005). http://www.carnegieendowment.org/files/CP55.Belton.FINAL.pdf
Thomas Carothers, Promoting the Rule of Law Abroad: In Search of Knowledge (Carnegie, 2006).
Thomas Carothers, “Rule of Law Temptations,” The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, Vol. 33/1 (Winter/Spring 2009), 49-61.
Wade Channel, “Lessons not Learned: Problems with Western Aid for Law Reform in Postcommunist Countries,” Rule of Law Series, Carnegie Papers, Number 57 (May 2005). http://www.carnegieendowment.org/files/CP57.Channell.FINAL.pdf
Kevin E. Davis and Michael Trebilcock, The Relationship between Law and Development: Optimist versus Skeptics, New York University Law and Economics Working Papers, New York University School of Law (April 21, 2008).
Global Witness, Cambodia’s Family Trees: Illegal logging and the stripping of public assets by Cambodia’s elite (Washington, DC: Global Witness, June 2007)
Erik Jensen and Thomas Heller (Eds.), Beyond Common Knowledge: Empirical Approaches to the Rule of Law (Stanford University Press, 2003).
Erik G. Jensen, “Justice and the Rule of Law,” in Charles Call with Vanessa Wyeth, eds., Building States to Build Peace (Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner, 2008).
Celestine Nyamu-Musembi, “Breathing Life into Dead Theories about Property Rights: de Soto and Land Relations in Rural Africa,” IDS Working Paper 272 (Brighton, U.K.: Institute of Development Studies, 2006). http://www.ids.ac.uk/files/Wp272.pdf